To give yourself the best chance of learning as much vocabulary as possible, you need to set yourself some targets. This may sound unnecessary, but remember the reason why knowing more words will benefit you. The more words you know, the more eloquently you'll be able to articulate your arguments in your essay writing.
And the better you present your arguments, the higher grades you're likely to score.
So aim to learn around 10 new words every week. It doesn't take a genius to work out that if you kept this up, you'd learn over words by this time next year. That'll give you a LOT of variation in your writing! Read everything you can get your hands on. In addition to the targeted research of a topic, make a general decision to read more overall.
Also, practice critical reading when you read academic sources. If you want to improve your vocabulary, you have to change this habit. When you see a new word look it up in a dictionary. As you read in preparation for your essays, be alert to new words.
It is so easy to ignore them — both the ones we read and the ones we hear. And equally obviously there can be only one rational and quite general solution: to use different means of marking emphasis say, underlining and phrases of foreign origin say, italicising. With the advent of word processing, it is now very easy to combine distinct ways of marking text e. In the meantime, however, while we wait for my proposed reform to win general acceptance, there is no alternative, if you want to emphasise a foreign phrase which you are obliged to italicise anyway, to rephrasing the sentence so that the emphasis is clear without being graphically marked as such.
And now on to note, in passing, the difference between onto and on to! In some contexts especially where Kant's views are in question this really means in advance, or independently, of having any experience at all, but the word is often used quite loosely to mean in advance, or independently, of having some particular experience, where the relevant experience is to be gathered from the context: for example, if one says it is not possible to work out someone's name a priori all that's meant is that certain kinds of experience - e.
A posteriori is the contradictory of a priori i. A fortiori is used to signal the inference of something weaker from something stronger, as in the claim: God cannot bring about states of affairs involving a logical contradiction, and so a fortiori cannot affect the past the person making this claim is asserting or assuming, as many thinkers have done, that to affect the past would involve - be a particular case of - bringing about contradictory states of affairs.
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Philosophy essay writing: vocabulary It is very common for students to choose the wrong item of vocabulary to express what they want to say. Here are some examples which have come to our attention: Causal particles. Because it was raining, we decided to stay indoors addressee doesn't yet know that it was raining Since it is raining, we may as well stay indoors addressee already knows that it's raining As causal is often an alternative to since , but it is colloquial and generally to be avoided in formal contexts: a good rule of thumb is to avoid it altogether.
In the following sentence as should be replaced by for : Propositions can, however, be pictures, as according to Wittgenstein a thought is a logical picture of the facts and a proposition is the expression of a thought.
It is very helpful in my essay writing and it improves my understanding too so I believe that it will give more Hint in writing. Resurgence — an increase or revival after a period of limited activity — N If you are comparing and contrasting two ideas, then use the "Showing Contrast" transition words see list below. Here are some groups of words that commonly occur in Essays , with examples from different disciplines. This is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. Context 2: Analysis These words can often be used when describing common patterns between examples or casting some form of opinion or judgement. Less persuasive unless you are appealing to an academic audience would be: Hence we believe that
Given that is a useful alternative to either because or since. Begging the Question To beg the question is to assume what is supposed to be proved or argued for: it does not mean to invite the question that Cannot The negative of can is cannot one word not can not two words.
Commit Do not omit the reflexive pronoun in such sentences as: I was unwilling to commit myself to this principle. Comprise and Compose It is very common to confuse these. For- and fore- Distinguish: forbear refrain from forebear ancestor , and forego precede from forgo abstain from. Imply and Infer Statements and states of affairs imply ; only people infer.
Hence in the following infer should be replaced by imply : The conclusion of the argument is false, which infers that one of the premisses must also be false. Insofar and inasmuch Insofar which may be written as three separate words , joined with as , means to the extent that ; inasmuch which must be written as a single word , joined with as , means since.
Like and As Use as to connect two clauses, not like : It hurt him as it had hurt others.
Do not use un like with adverbial phrases, as in: In prose, unlike in poetry, inversion is rare example from Dummett, p. Do not use like in place of as if in sentences such as: She looked as if she had finished her talk. Presently This word means soon or shortly afterwards , not at the present time. Refute To refute someone or something is to offer a successful argument for the falsity of the position to be refuted. So you must not say I refute the view that justice is the interest of the stronger with the intention of thereby rendering it true that you refute it.
The performative alternatives to refute are reject and repudiate. They help the reader to progress from one idea expressed by the author to the next idea. Thus, they help to build up coherent relationships within the text. This structured list of commonly used English transition words — approximately , can be considered as quasi complete.
It can be used by students and teachers alike to find the right expression. English transition words are essential, since they not only connect ideas, but also can introduce a certain shift, contrast or opposition, emphasis or agreement, purpose, result or conclusion, etc. The transition words and phrases have been assigned only once to somewhat artificial categories, although some words belong to more than one category.
There is some overlapping with prepositions and postpositions, but for the purpose of usage and completeness of this concise guide, I did not differentiate. The transition words like also, in addition, and, likewise , add information , reinforce ideas , and express agreement with preceding material.
Transition phrases like but , rather and or , express that there is evidence to the contrary or point out alternatives , and thus introduce a change the line of reasoning contrast. These transitional devices like especially are used to introduce examples as support , to indicate importance or as an illustration so that an idea is cued to the reader. Some of these transition words thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore, henceforth are time words that are used to show that after a particular time there was a consequence or an effect.