Essay on suffragette movement

Essay #3: The Nineteenth Amendment

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Discrimination Against Women 's Suffrage - In 19th Century United States, enfranchisement was heavily based on race, sex even economic status. Although women in the new republic had important roles in the family, the house, and other obligations, they were excluded from most rights. While this statute removed marital status as a requirement, many Oregon women continued to be excluded from voting because of legal barriers to holding property based on race and ethnicity; others were excluded based on economic status. An argument against this is that other issues post war and suffragette activity that gained women the vote. It was continuous process which started with Abigail Adams.

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If women were granted the parliamentary vote, would they want to stand for election to parliament, and even aspire to the role of Speaker in the House of Commons? The aim throughout was never to endanger human life but to force the Liberal Government to act. However, it is important to remember that alongside these law-breaking tactics, the suffragettes also continued in non-violent acts, such as interrupting theatre performances or services in the Church of England.

An Election Fighting Fund was set up to support Labour Party members at by-elections, and this policy was followed over the next two years Holton , Such party political alliances were not supported by the WSPU leadership which emphasised that women had to grow their own backbone and fight for equality in all areas of life, including employment and the law.

In November , Asquith announced that a Manhood Suffrage Bill would be introduced which would allow of amendment, if the Commons so desired, for the enfranchisement of women. A deeply religious woman she did not, in my view, deliberately commit suicide but was a risk taker who knew the consequences could be fatal Purvis b.

Five thousand women marched in her funeral procession which drew large crowds.

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The circumstances of her death were related in all the newspapers of the day and caught on Pathe News so that people all over the world could read about it. The disapproving national leadership of the NUWSS refused to take part in the funeral or even send a wreath. Numerous accidents were recorded when feeding by tube. For example, Ethel Moorhead, in Calton prison in Edinburgh, developed double pneumonia after her eighth forcible feeding when some food entered her lungs.

Essay about Suffragette Movement

Kitty Marion, a fire starter, experienced such pain during the times she was forcibly fed that she thought she was going mad and begged the doctor to give her some poison. The outbreak of war in August interrupted such talks. On the outbreak of war, both Emmeline Pankhurst and Millicent Garrett Fawcett patriotically supported their country in its hour of need and encouraged their followers to engage in war work.

On 6 February , when the Representation of the People Act received the Royal Assent thus finally becoming the law, it enfranchised not only soldiers and sailors aged twenty-one and above, but also young men of nineteen and twenty who had seen active service. The eight million women who were enfranchised were disproportionately middle-class housewives rather than the young working-class women who had worked in the munitions factories Smith , 88— Although women were not granted the franchise on equal terms with men — the issue on which both the WSPU and the NUWSS had campaigned — the principle of sex discrimination had been broken.

Should it find a new cause or wind up its organisation? At a general meeting in March it decided it should become the National Union of Societies for Equal Citizenship, Eleanor Rathbone succeeding Millicent Garrett Fawcett as president of the new body. Together with other groups, especially the small but vocal Six Point Group, it campaigned for an extension of the female franchise as well as other social reforms. Equal parliamentary voting rights with men were not granted to women until , when women became about It was a movement that politicised thousands of women in Edwardian Britain.

The immediate cause for the split was the proposed Fifteenth Amendment to the U. Constitution , a reconstruction amendment that would prohibit the denial of suffrage because of race. Stanton and Anthony opposed its passage unless it was accompanied by another amendment that would prohibit the denial of suffrage because of sex. Frederick Douglass , a strong supporter of women's suffrage, said, "The race to which I belong have not generally taken the right ground on this question. Lucy Stone, who became the AWSA's most prominent leader, supported the amendment but said she believed that suffrage for women would be more beneficial to the country than suffrage for black men.

Both wings of the movement were strongly associated with opposition to slavery, but their leaders sometimes expressed views that reflected the racial attitudes of that era. Stanton, for example, believed that a long process of education would be needed before what she called the "lower orders" of former slaves and immigrant workers would be able to participate meaningfully as voters.

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Shall [they] Anthony and Stanton wrote a letter to the Democratic National Convention that criticized Republican sponsorship of the Fourteenth Amendment which granted citizenship to black men but for the first time introduced the word "male" into the Constitution , saying, "While the dominant party has with one hand lifted up two million black men and crowned them with the honor and dignity of citizenship, with the other it has dethroned fifteen million white women—their own mothers and sisters, their own wives and daughters—and cast them under the heel of the lowest orders of manhood.

The two organizations had other differences as well. Although each campaigned for suffrage at both the state and national levels, the NWSA tended to work more at the national level and the AWSA more at the state level.

Events soon removed much of the basis for the split in the movement. In debate about the Fifteenth Amendment was made irrelevant when that amendment was officially ratified.

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Free Essays from Bartleby | nyone know what the Women's Suffrage is about? The Women's Suffrage Movement is about the struggle for women to have equal . Women’s suffrage, or the crusade to achieve the equal right for women to vote and run for political office, was a difficult fight that took activists in the United States almost years to win. On August 26, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States was.

In disgust with corruption in government led to a mass defection of abolitionists and other social reformers from the Republicans to the short-lived Liberal Republican Party. In Francis and Virginia Minor , husband and wife suffragists from Missouri, outlined a strategy that came to be known as the New Departure, which engaged the suffrage movement for several years. Constitution implicitly enfranchised women, this strategy relied heavily on Section 1 of the recently adopted Fourteenth Amendment , [] which reads, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.

No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. In the NWSA officially adopted the New Departure strategy, encouraging women to attempt to vote and to file lawsuits if denied that right.

Women’s Suffrage Movement of Europe

Soon hundreds of women tried to vote in dozens of localities. In some cases, actions like these preceded the New Departure strategy: in in Vineland, New Jersey, a center for radical spiritualists , nearly women placed their ballots into a separate box and attempted to have them counted, but without success. District Court in Washington, D.

In Victoria Woodhull , a stockbroker, was invited to speak before a committee of Congress, the first woman to do so. Although she had little previous connection to the women's movement, she presented a modified version of the New Departure strategy. Instead of asking the courts to declare that women had the right to vote, she asked Congress itself to declare that the Constitution implicitly enfranchised women.

The committee rejected her suggestion.

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Stanton in particular welcomed Woodhull's proposal to assemble a broad-based reform party that would support women's suffrage. Anthony opposed that idea, wanting the NWSA to remain politically independent. In she published details of a purported adulterous affair between Rev. Happersett that "the Constitution of the United States does not confer the right of suffrage upon anyone". In a case that generated national controversy, Susan B. Anthony was arrested for voting in the presidential election of The judge directed the jury to deliver a guilty verdict.

Women's Suffrage in the United States

When he asked Anthony, who had not been permitted to speak during the trial, if she had anything to say, she responded with what one historian has called "the most famous speech in the history of the agitation for woman suffrage". My natural rights, my civil rights, my political rights, my judicial rights, are all alike ignored. Originally envisioned as a modest publication that would be produced quickly, the history evolved into a six-volume work of more than pages written over a period of 41 years.

Its last two volumes were published in , long after the deaths of the project's originators, by Ida Husted Harper , who also assisted with the fourth volume. Written by leaders of one wing of the divided women's movement Lucy Stone , their main rival, refused to have anything to do with the project , the History of Woman Suffrage preserves an enormous amount of material that might have been lost forever, but it does not give a balanced view of events where their rivals are concerned. Because it was for years the main source of documentation about the suffrage movement, historians have had to uncover other sources to provide a more balanced view.

In Senator Aaron A. Sargent , a friend of Susan B. Anthony, introduced into Congress a women's suffrage amendment. More than forty years later it would become the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution with no changes to its wording. Its text is identical to that of the Fifteenth Amendment except that it prohibits the denial of suffrage because of sex rather than "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". Calling attention to the irony of being legally entitled to run for office while denied the right to vote, Elizabeth Cady Stanton declared herself a candidate for the U.

Congress in , the first woman to do so. In Belva Ann Lockwood , the first female lawyer to argue a case before the U. Supreme Court, became the first woman to conduct a viable campaign for president. Lockwood advocated women's suffrage and other reforms during a coast-to-coast campaign that received respectful coverage from at least some major periodicals. She financed her campaign partly by charging admission to her speeches. Women were enfranchised in frontier Wyoming Territory in and in Utah in The short-lived Populist Party endorsed women's suffrage, contributing to the enfranchisement of women in Colorado in and Idaho in In the late s, the suffrage movement received a major boost when the Women's Christian Temperance Union WCTU , the largest women's organization in the country, decided to campaign for suffrage and created a Franchise Department to support that effort.

Frances Willard , its pro-suffrage leader, urged WCTU members to pursue the right to vote as a means of protecting their families from alcohol and other vices. The AWSA, which was especially strong in New England, was initially the larger of the two rival suffrage organizations, but it declined in strength during the s. Anthony, for example, interrupted the official ceremonies of the th anniversary of the U.